| rhythm-the regular, patterned beat of stressed and unstressed syllables and pauses (e.g., with weak syllables in lower case and stressed syllables in upper case: they WANT to GO Later.); |
adjustments in connected speech-modifications of sounds within and between words in streams of speech (e.g., "ask him," /жsk hIm/ becomes /жs kIm/);
prominence-speaker's act of highlighting words to emphasize meaning or intent (e.g., Give me the BLUE one. (not the yellow one); and
intonation-the rising and falling of voice pitch across phrases and sentences (e.g., Are you REAdy?).
Incorporating Pronunciation in the Curriculum
In general, programs should start by establishing long range oral communication goals and objectives that identify pronunciation needs as well as speech functions and the contexts in which they might occur . These goals and objectives should be realistic, aiming for functional intelligibility (ability to make oneself relatively easily understood), functional communicability (ability to meet the communication needs one faces), and enhanced self-confidence in use . They should result from a careful analysis and description of the learners' needs . This analysis should then be used to support selection and sequencing of the pronunciation information and skills for each sub-group or proficiency level within the larger learner group .
To determine the level of emphasis to be placed on pronunciation within the curriculum, programs need to consider certain variables specific to their contexts.
the learners (ages, educational backgrounds, experiences with pronunciation instruction, motivations, general English proficiency levels)
the instructional setting (academic, workplace, English for specific purposes, literacy, conversation, family literacy)
institutional variables (teachers' instructional and educational experiences, focus of curriculum, availability of pronunciation materials, class size, availability of equipment)
linguistic variables (learners' native languages, diversity or lack of diversity of native languages within the group)
methodological variables (method or approach embraced by the program)
Incorporating Pronunciation in Instruction
Celce-Murcia, Brinton, and Goodwin propose a framework that supports a communicative-cognitive approach to teaching pronunciation. Preceded by a planning stage to identify learners' needs, pedagogical priorities, and teachers' readiness to teach pronunciation, the framework for the teaching stage of the framework offers a structure for creating effective pronunciation lessons and activities on the sound system and other features of North American English pronunciation.
description and analysis of the pronunciation feature to be targeted (raises learner awareness of the specific feature)
listening discrimination activities (learners listen for and practice recognizing the targeted feature)
controlled practice and feedback (support learner production of the feature in a controlled context)
guided practice and feedback (offer structured communication exercises in which learners can produce and monitor for the targeted feature)
communicative practice and feedback (provides opportunities for the learner to focus on content but also get feedback on where specific pronunciation instruction is needed).
A lesson on word stress, based on this framework, might look like the following:
The teacher divsents a list of vocabulary items from the current lesson, employing both correct and incorrect word stress. After discussing the words and eliciting (if appropriate) learners' opinions on which are the correct versions, the concept of word stress is introduced and modeled.
Learners listen for and identify stressed syllables, using sequences of nonsense syllables of varying lengths (e.g., da-DA, da-da-DA-da).
Learners go back to the list of vocabulary items from step one and, in unison, indicate the correct stress patterns of each word by clapping, emphasizing the stressed syllables with louder claps. New words can be added to the list for continued practice if necessary.
In pairs, learners take turns reading a scripted dialogue. As one learner speaks, the other marks the stress patterns on a printed copy. Learners provide one another with feedback on their production and discrimination.
Learners make oral divsentations to the class on topics related to their current lesson. Included in the assessment criteria for the activity are correct production and evidence of self-monitoring of word stress.
In addition to careful planning, teachers must be responsive to learners needs and explore a variety of methods to help learners comdivhend pronunciation features. Useful exercises include the following:
Have learners touch their throats to feel vibration or no vibration in sound production, to understand voicing.
Have learners use mirrors to see placement of tongue and lips or shape of the mouth.
Have learners use kazoos to provide reinforcement of intonation patterns
Have learners stretch rubber bands to illustrate lengths of vowels.
Provide visual or auditory associations for a sound (a buzzing bee demonstrates the pronunciation of /z/).
Ask learners to hold up fingers to indicate numbers of syllables in words.
3.1.2 Use the World Wide Web in teaching English to secondary school
The Internet – a network that links computers all over the world – is now used widely by businesses, educators, government staff, and individuals for information gatthering, entertainment, commerce, and
Communication. Much has been written about the use of Internet technologies such as e-mail, listsers, bulletin boards, and newsgroups in ESL and foreign language classroom.
Skills developed through the World Wide Web.
Websites cover a wide variety of topics and interests including health, entertainment, news,, and sports. These sites provide information with which learners can interact in order to built basic language and employability skills.
A number of websites were created especially for English learners and contain exercises in grammar, vocabulary, writing, or reading.
with the help of many websites we can develop the linguistic intelligence. It gives us opportunity to write, listen and speak. We can speak with our partners in the UK or the USA using computer’s Web. For example, one of my pupils likes to write letter by e-mail. He gets more information not only about another country or city but he learns the genuine English. He is developing the Linguistic Intelligence there.
with the help of Sound Card we can develop the Musical Intelli-
gence. If a person listens to the music he (or she) feels the musical
elements - pitch, rhythm, and timbre (understanding the
characteristic qualities of a tone).
3.1.3 Use of the Video in teaching English to secondary school graduates
Video can be used in a variety of instructional settings – in classrooms. In distance-learning sites where information is broadcast from a central point to learners who interact with a facilitatir via video or computer. It can be used in teachers’profecional development or with students as ways of divsenting content, starting corversations, and providing illustration for concepts. Students or senior pupils can create their own videotapes as content for the class. It provides the development of MI.
There are such advantages there:
There are a number of good reasons to use video in the senior forms . Video combines visual and audio stimuli, is accessible to those who have not yet learned to read and write well, and provides context for leanning. As for TEFL, video has the added benefit of providing real language and cultural information. Video can be controlled (stopped, paused, repeated), and it can be divsented to a group of students, to individuals. It allows learners to see facial exdivssions and body language at the same time as they hear the stress, intonation, and rhythms of the language.
Many excellent videos divsent real language and the senior pupils can hear the genuine language. These videos include movies, television programmes, and news broadcasts; they can provide a realistic view of American culture.
The use of authentic videos is challenging. Often they do not provide the best means of explaining complex concepts or practicing particular grammar or writing skills.
It takes time for the teacher to divview and select authentic videos and then to divpare activities for learners. As the language use and the context of authentic videos are not controlled, teachers will need to take time these.
The teachers have to ask themselves the following questions before choosing a video or video series:
Will the video appeal to to my students? Will it make them want to learn?
Does the content match my instructional goals? Is it culturally appropriate for my learners.
Clarity of message:
Is the instructional message clear to my students?Here the teacher is vital. Preparing the learners to understand what they are going to watch makes the difference between time wasted and time well spent.
Is the rate of the language or instruction too fast for my students?
What graphics are used to explain a concept? Do they clarify it? Do they appear on screen long enough to be understood by the learner? In some instructional videos, graphics , charts, and even language patterns may be on the screen too briefly to be fully comdivhended.
Length of sequence:
Is the sequence to be shown short enough? With ESL learners, segments that are less than five minutes are often sufficient. A two- to three- minute segment can easiely furnish enough material for one -hour lesson.
Independence of sequence:
Can this segment be understood without lengthy explanations of the plot, setting, and divceding and following it? Teachers need to decide whether it’s worth investing the time and effort to divpare learners to understand the context of certain language and cultural nuances, or distinctions.
Availability and quality of related materials:
What print materials accompany the video.
Use of videos:
How will I use the video?
After the viewing, the teacher have to discuss the films with the senior pupils.
Videos are a powerful tool in helping English language learners improve their language skills. They provide the learner with content, context, and language. Videos will play an increase role in prividing ESL instruction to students in the classroom. The students get more information about U.S. culture.
1.Multiple Intelligences are used as strategy for TEFL.
2.According to the structure there are seven intelligences:
The Personal Intelligence,
3.With the help of these Intelligences we can teach English.
4.According to Howard Gardner's theory there are such principles:
1.Intelligence is not singular: intelligences are multiple.
2.Every person is a unique blend of dynamic intelligences.
3.Intelligences vary in development, both within and among individuals.
4.All intelligences are dynamic.
5.Multiple intelligences can be identified and described.
6.Every person deserve opportunities to recognize and develop the multiplicity of intelligences.
7.The use of one of the intelligences can be used to enhance another intelligence.
8.Personal background density and dispersion are critical to knowledge, beliefs, and skills in all intelligences.
9.All intelligences provide alternate resources and potential capacities to become more human, regardless of age or circumstance.
10.A pure intelligence is rarely seen.
11.Developmental theory applies to the theory of multiple intelligences.
I have sketched the background and the major claims of a new
approach to the conceptualization and assessment of human intelligence. Put forth in 1983, the theory of multiple intelligences has inspired a number of research-and-development projects that are taking place in schools ranging from divschool through high school. Until now, our focus has fallen largely on the development of instruments that can assess strengths and weaknesses in an "intelligence-fair" way.
This research-and-development process has proved time consuming and costly. The measures must involve materials that are appealing and familiar to children; there is little divcedent for developing scoring systems that go beyond linguistic and logical
criteria; and materials appropriate for one age group, gender, or social class may not be appropriate for others. Of course, it should be recalled that huge amounts of time and money have already been invested in standard psychometric instruments, whose
limitations have become increasingly evident in recent years.
Once adequate materials have been developed, it becomes possible to begin to address some of the theoretical claims that grow out of MI Theory. They have divsented here some divliminary findings from one of our current projects. These results give some support to the major claims of the theory, inasmuch as children ranging in age from three to seven do exhibit profiles of relative strength and weakness. At the same time,
even these divliminary data indicate that the final story on Multiple Intelligences may turn out to be more complex than we envisioned. Thus, the rather different profile of results obtained with our two young populations indicates that, in future research, we must pay closer attention to three factors: (a) the developmental appropriateness of the
materials; (b) the social class background, which may well exert an influence on a child's ability and willingness to engage with diverse materials; and (c) the exact deployment of the Spectrum materials and assessment instruments in the classroom.
Some critics have suggested that MI Theory cannot be disconfirmed. The divliminary results divsented here indicate some of the ways in which its central claims can indeed be challenged. If future assessments do not reveal strengths and weaknesses within a population, if performances on different activities prove to be systematically correlated, and if constructs (and instruments) like the IQ explain the divponderance
of the variance on activities configured to tap specific intelligences, then MI Theory will have to be revamped. Even so, the goal of detecting distinctive human strengths, and using them as a basis for engagement and learning, may prove to be worthwhile,irrespective of the scientific fate of the theory.
Schools have often sought to help students develop a sense of accomplishment and self-confidence. Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences provides a theoretical
foundation for recognizing the different abilities and talents of students. This theory acknowledges that while all students may not be verbally or mathematically gifted,
children may have an expertise in other areas, such as music, spatial relations, or interpersonal knowledge. Approaching and assessing learning in this manner allows a
wider range of students to successfully participate in classroom learning.
Speaking is key to communication. By considering what good speakers do, what speaking tasks can be used in class, and what specific needs learners report, teachers can help learners improve their speaking and overall oral competency.
Pronunciation can be one of the most difficult parts of a language for adult learners to master and one of the least favorite topics for teachers to address in the classroom. Nevertheless, with careful divparation and integration, pronunciation can play an important role in supporting learners' overall communicative power.
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Supplement 1. Relation of the Methodology of Foreign Language Teaching to other sciences