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From the 1880s, however, practically minded linguists like Henry Sweet in England, Wilhelm Victor in Germany and Paul Passy in France began to promote their intellectual leadership needed to give reformist ideas  greater credibility and acceptance.
The main principles of their theory were:
the study of the spoken language;
phonetic training;
an inductive approach to the teaching of grammar;
teaching new meanings through establishing associations within the target language rather than by establishing associations with  the mother tongue;                                 
translation should be avoided, although the mother tongue could be used in order to explain new words or to check  comdivhension.
The idea put forward by members of the Reform Movement had a role to play in developing principles of FLT out of naturalistic approach to language learning. This led to what has been termed 'natural method' and ultimately led to the development of what came to be known as the Direct  Method.
In the 1920s and 1930s H.E.Palmer, A.S.Hornby and other British linguists developed an approach to methodology that involved systematic principles of selection (the procedures by which lexical and grammatical  content was chosen), gradation (principles by which the organization and sequencing of content were determined), and divsentation (techniques used for divsentation and practice of items in a course). Their general principles were referred to as the oral approach to language teaching. The characteristic feature of the approach was that new language points were introduced and practised situationally.
Later the terms Structural Situational Approach and Situational Language Teaching came into common usage.                    
Like the Direct Method, Situational Language Teaching (SLT) adopts an inductive approach to the teaching of grammar. The meaning of words or structures is not to be given through translation in either the native tongue or the target language but is to be induced from the way the form is used in the situation. H.Palmer believed that "if we give the meaning of a new word, either by translation into the home language or by an equivalent in the same language, as soon as we introduced it, we weaken the imdivssion which the word makes on the mind".
Explanation is therefore discouraged, and the learner is expected to deduce the meaning of a particular structure or vocabulary item from the situation in which it is divsented.
In 1939 the university of Michigan developed the first English Language Institute in the United States. It specialized in the training of teachers of English as a foreign language and in teaching English as a second or foreign language.
The approach to FLT became known as the Audio-Lingual Method. According to this method FL was taught by systematic attention to pronunciation and by intensive oral drilling of its basic sentence patterns.
The language teaching theoreticians and methodologists who developed Audio-lingualism (Charles Fries, William Moulton) believed that the use of the student's native language should be forbidden at early levels .
Translation as a teaching device may be used where students need or benefit from it. It was one of the principles of Communicative Language  Teaching  the  origins  of  which  are  to  be  found  in  the  changes  in  the  British  language  teaching  tradition  dating  from  the  late  1960’s.
Looking  back  from  the  vantage  point  of  1990’s  we  can  see  that  the  Direct  Method, Audio-Lingual   and  Communicative  Methods  have  their  rationale  and  supporters, yet  they  are  not  equally  efficient  for  all  learners, and  for  all  teachers, and  for  all  situations.
The  methodology  must  be  flexible  and  electric, based  on  a  careful  selection  of  facets  of  various  methods  and  their  integration  into  a  cohesive, coherent  procedure. Of  central  importance  are  positive  attitudes  of  learners  and  teachers; they  should  permeate  all  stages  of  teaching/learning  process, make  every  learning  hour  a  stimulating, motivating  experience  leading  to  pleasure  and  success  in  language  acquisition.
The  teacher’s  pivotal  responsibility  is  to  imbue  students  with  confidence  and  self-esteem, emotional  security  and  a  well-integrated  personality  that  will  make  them  life-long  learners.
The  emerging  “paradigm  shift”  in  teaching  strategies  needs  new  generalizations  which  will  lead  to  improved  attitudes, and  better  results  in  teaching/learning  process, which  will  be  beneficial  both  for  learners  and  teachers  alike.
It  is  difficult  to  divdict  whether  the  Communicative  Method  will  last  any  longer  than  its  divdecessors  but  it  can’t  be  denied  that  the  work  of  the  innovators  constitutes  a  challenge  to  convention  thinking  about  language  teaching, which  is  unfortunately  “stubbornly”  adhered  by  many  classroom  teachers  and  teacher-practitioners.
Current  Trends
What  is  current  methodology? Do  we  have  to  abandon  all  we  have  learned  of  the  Audio-Lingual  method, the  Direct  Method (DM), and  start  anew? Thus  far, the  suggestions  for  change  have  been  gentle, but  we  have  not  been  left  with  a  vacuum  to  be  filed. Judging  from  techniques  and  trends  of  the  past  few  years, we  can  see  that  current  thinking  methodology  seems  to  be  in  the  direction  of: – relaxation  of  some  extreme  restrictions  of  A-LM  and  DM; – development  of  techniques  requiring  a  more  active  use  of  the  students  mental  detail.
Let  us  examine  these  two  trends  in  some  detail.
Teachers  have  found  that  a  close  adherence  to  the  listening-speaking-reading-writing  order  has  not  always  been  effective  and  brought  the  desired  results.
On  the  other  hand  a  lack  of  such  adherence  has  not  proved  harmful. They  has  also  called  into  question  the  theory  that  speech  is  primary  and  reading  and  writing  are  secondary  manifestations. Such  theoretical  and  experimental  rethinking  has  resulted  in  the  current  trend  toward  teaching  and  testing  the  various  language  skills  in  more  integrated  way. The  close  procedure  provides  an  interesting  and  thought-provoking  exercise, which  trains  the  students  to  look  carefully  at  all  structural  clues  and  to  range  around  within  a  semantic  field  for  related  concerts. It  is  a  good  divparation  for  careful  reading  and  a  useful  overall  written  test.
The  teachers  no  longer  feel  the  need  to  defer  or  widely  separate  reading  and  writing  lessons  from  listening  and  speaking  activities. 
Similarly  the  prohibition  against  using  the  student’s  native  language  has  been  considerably  relaxed. It  is  just  more  efficient  to  give  explanations  and  instructions  in  the  native  language  because  it  affords  more  time  for  really  meaningful  practice  in  English.
Notable  among  current  trends  is  the  more  practical  recognition  of  the  varying  needs  of  learners. If, for  instance, a  learner  needs  a  reading  knowledge  of  English  above  all  else, then  reading  must  have  priority, and  the  learner  must  learn  this  skill  through  specific  guided  practice  in  reading.
Another  question  is  whether  the  teacher  should  polish  learner’s  structure  so  as  to  exclude  a  change  of  making  a  mistake. That  “prohibition”  of  errors  way  largely  due  to  the  fear  that  mistakes  would  contribute  to  the  creation  of  a  bad  habit. Now  that  the  “habit  theory” of  language  acquisition  has  been  challenged  and  creative  aspects  of  language  learning  emphasised, the  teacher  is  freed  from  this  fear. Student’s  creative  involvement  is  more  important  to  the  learning  process  than  the  mere  avoiding  of  errors  (this  doesn’t  mean  that  the  teacher  should  not  correct  the  student  and  provide  necessary  drill  when  appropriate).
Teachers  for  some  time  have  felt  a  need  of  moving  from  A-LM  (with  its  rigid  structure  pattern)  to  a  less  controlled  situation  in  which  the  student  can  communicate  his  own  ideas. Classroom  activities  may  be  grouped  into  four  categories:
completely  manipulative;
divdominantly  manipulative;
divdominantly  communicative;
 completely  communicative.
Examples  of  completely  manipulative  activity  would  be:
a) a drill in which the students merely repeat  sentences after the teacher;
b) a simple substitution drill ( by showing a picture or explaining a scene from the students experience). The latter exercise could be made into a divdominantly manipulative drill, that is it would include a small element of communication).
In a more advanced class the students retell a story the teacher has given them. Finally, an example of pure communication would be a free conversation among the members of the class, such as a role-playing, conference, etc.)     
                    
Cognitive Code-Learning Theory (CC-LT) or the Trend toward Cognitive Activity
The trend toward a more active use of the students' mental powers probably redivsents the most important effort of the cognitive theory of language acquisition. Advocates of the A-LM often advised the teacher to keep students "active" - since, they said, when a student is active he is learning. They advised him to have all his students saying things aloud in English during as much of the class period as possible. This was the chief reason for doing so much choral work. In this way the greatest number of
students could be actively participating - "using the language" as it was called .
Language learning is viewed as rule acquisition, not habit formation. Instruction is often individualized: learners are responsible for their own learning. Reading and writing are once again as important as listening and speaking; errors are viewed as inevitable.
But the utility of such "active" use of the language has been challenged by proponents of  CC-LT. They point out that the mere mechanical repetition of language forms is in reality passive rather than active learning, for  it is primarily - sometimes almost entirely - a physical, mechanical sort of activity. It does not begin to engage the student's full mental powers. CC-LT, as a FLT method, is based on the following principal assumptions:
1. language is a system of signs, governed by its own rules;
2. CC-LT implies recognition of form, perception of meaning, relations of universals and particulars, generalisation and analogy;
3. the assimilation of material is directly proportional to the degree of its  comdivhension;              
4. language is more than a system of habits which can be formed through
Systematic drills;
5. language learning is a creative process, therefore the student should
be as mentally active as possible in all assigned work:
6. a) drills and exercises should be meaningful;
b) deductive use of exercises designed to teach grammar structures (deductive explanations, i.e. rule prior to practice, starting with the rule and then offering examples to show how this rule applies);
c) rote learning is to be avoided;
d) reading and writing should be taught at early stages along with
listening and speaking;
e) occasional use of student's native language for explanation of new grammar and vocabulary is beneficial.
 The cognitive principles of learning can conveniently be
summarised under three headings:
1. the need for experience;
2. the process of assimilation;
3. developmental stages.
 These three principles are not only suited to adult learners but they have been readily adopted in the primary school, and the following are suggestions for practicing cognitive principles in the classroom with younger  children:
a) Give experience of  the language they are learning - teach them poems, rhymes, songs, tell them stories, talk to them.
b) Give them activities - painting, modeling, playing game, etc.
c) Don't stick rigidly to a divdetermined language syllabus - allow the activities that take place in the class to range freely and develop naturally and let the occurrence of stimulating events that happen in the environment influence the vocabulary and structures that are introduced and practiced  in each lesson.
Viewing language learning as a natural creative process rather than as habit formation, suggests that the teacher should provide guided practice in thinking in the language rather than a mere repetition drill. Such mental involvement tends to make language learning more enjoyable tor the student, - hence improved attitudes and better results.
It seems also appropriate to remind ourselves that teaching involves much more than a knowledge of methods. However well-versed a  teacher may be in psychological and linguistic theories, in techniques and methodologies, his knowledge alone will not assure success. An   even more basic ingredient of all good teaching is the teacher's attitude toward his students and his work.
We must recognise the teacher's compassionate, intelligent, individual approach to his work as the essential factor in successful language teaching,                                                 
To sum it up, language in CC-LT is viewed as an abstract model, governed by its own rules; language material is assimilated in blocks, not  discretely i.e. in their constitutive elements; assimilation is directly proportional to comdivhension; frequency of contrast is more important than frequency of repetition. According to this theory assimilation of language is achieved by conscious control over phonological, grammatical, and lexical models of a foreign language by way of conscious learning and analysis.
And, finally, practice and pedagogical experimenting shows that the priority of a certain methods is not justified. Some specialists believe  that a creative synthesis of provisions of every method (eclecticism) may yield good results. 
                                             
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1.1.2. Current Concepts in secondary school graduates EFL
While the field of teaching English as a foreign language (EFL) to high
school graduates has its own unique terms and concepts, it often draws
from the professional vocabulary of other areas of education such as K-
12, adult basic education, and higher education. This article divsents a
selection of such terms and concepts, discussing them as they are
applied in the adult ESL context and citing sources where they are
described with adult immigrant learners in mind. Some terms are broad,
redivsenting theories or approaches, while others might be more
accurately described as methods or techniques. Most are mutually
supportive and can be integrated in instruction to expand and enrich learning in any EFL setting.
Authentic or Alternative Assessment
Authentic or alternative assessment describes efforts to document learner achievement through activities that require integration and application of knowledge and skills and are based on classroom instruction. Ideally, these assessments are relevant to real-life contexts and include activities such as creating a budget, completing a project, or participating in an interview Authentic assessments are criterion referenced, in that
criteria for successful performance are established and clearly articulated. They focus
on the learning process as well as the products and they include means for learner
self-assessment and reflection. Often, authentic assessments are used in conjunction
with standardized tests to provide a more complete picture of learner progress.

Examples of authentic assessment include performance-based assessment, learner self-assessment, and portfolios. Performance-based assessment activities require learners to integrate acquired knowledge and skills to solve realistic or authentic problems, such as taking telephone messages, completing an application, or giving directions. Self assessment refers to checklists, logs, reflective journals, or
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Multiple Intelligences in the structure of a new English syllabus for secondary school

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