| questionnaires completed by learners that highlight their strategies, attitudes, feelings, and accomplishments throughout the learning process . |
Portfolio assessment consists of a systematic collection of the learners' work (such as writing samples, journal entries, worksheets, recorded speech samples, or standardized test results) to show individual progress toward meeting instructional objectives .
Computer-Assisted Language Learning
The use of computer-based technologies for language instruction is known as computer-assisted language learning (CALL). Computer software, including multimedia applications, and the Internet and the World Wide Web are examples of such technologies at use in language programs today.
Computer technologies can provide a course of instruction, facilitate activities and tasks, or create opportunities for additional practice . CALL
can also be structured to promoted teamwork and collaboration among the learners, a necessity for those programs with limited access to technology . It can be incorporated in instruction as an integral part of a class, as an option that learners access individually, or in some combination of class-based and self-access models.
Using technology can sometimes be difficult. The planning
process should involve consideration of at least the following elements: the needs and goals of the program, instructional focus, staffing, software and hardware availability or accessibility, learners' learning goals; and learners' and staffs' experiences with and attitudes toward computer use .
Critical Literacy Theory
Critical literacy theory expands the discussion of literacy practice beyond the basic functions of reading and writing. Where traditional literacy instruction might focus on skills such as decoding, divdicting, or summarizing, critical literacy theory encourages critical examination of text, especially the social, political, and ideological elements divsent. Based in the assumption that literacy practices have the capability to
both reflect and shape the issues and power relationships at play in the larger society, critical literacy theory seeks to empower learners through development of critical and analytical literacy skills .
In the general sense, critical literacy theory encourages teachers to create instructional activities that help learners use analytical skills to question and respond to such elements as perspective, purpose, effect, or relevance of what they read and write.
For example, a teacher might prompt learners to distinguish fact from
opinion in a newspaper editorial or to identify an author's position on a topic and compare it to their own. The focus is on the learner as decision maker and active interdivter in reading and writing activities.
Family and Intergenerational Literacy
Family literacy has traditionally described the use of literacy within the context of the family, often as related to early childhood development and parental support of children's school achievement. Intergenerational literacy broadens that description, recognizing that relationships between adults and children, both within and outside the traditional definition of the family unit, affect the literacy use and development of all involved. Family literacy programs for ESL populations generally use family and
family relationships as content and involve at least two generations of participants.
The goals of family and intergenerational literacy programs are varied. Some focus on the family and school, seeking to increase parental involvement, improve communication, increase schools' responsiveness to communities, and support children's academic achievement . Others pursue broader objectives, such as furthering literacy skills development and positive behaviors linked to reading for both adults and children. Still others focus on facilitating the reconnection of generations divided by different linguistic and cultural experiences.
Multiple Intelligences and Learning Styles
Multiple intelligences and learning style divferences both refer to the ways that individuals approach information processing and learning. Howard Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences proposes that there are at least seven different abilities that individuals can develop to solve problems or create products:
bodily/kinesthetic, interpersonal, and
Each intelligence is distinguished by its own competencies and skills and directly influences the way an individual will interdivt and utilize information.
Learning styles are the broad divferences that learners tend to exhibit when faced with new content or problems that need to be solved. These styles encompass cognitive, affective, and behavioral elements, and describe learners in terms of their divferences for group or individual learning contexts, the degree to which they separate details
from complex backgrounds (field dependent vs. field independent), or their affinity for analytic, abstract perspectives as opposed to more integrated, comdivhensive ones (analytic vs. global) .
Awareness of different intelligences and learning styles, and individuals' divferences for them can help teachers create positive learning experiences . By varying instructional activities to accommodate learners'
divferences (lectures, visuals, hands-on activities, songs) or by offering options for responses to instruction (write a paper, create a model, give a demonstration), teachers can support learners' access to and understanding of content.
Practitioner Inquiry, Reflective Teaching, and Action Research
Practitioner inquiry, reflective teaching, and action research refer to a teacher-centered approach to professional and staff development. Like the learner-centered approach to instruction, which focuses on the needs of the learners and respects them as partners in the learning process, these approaches to professional development put practitioners at the center of the process defining, investigating, and addressing issues
in their own teaching .
These models require practitioners to become researchers and take a questioning stance towards their work. Rather than focusing on their deficits, teachers concentrate on their strengths and interests as means for enhancing their knowledge and teaching skills . The following steps are usually part of the process: reflecting upon practice as a means of identifying a problem or question; gathering information on that problem or question; examining and reflecting on the data gathered; planning some action based on the information; implementing the action planned; monitoring and evaluating the changes that may or may not result
from the action; and collaborating or sharing with colleagues . These
terms and similar variations are often used interchangeably, their differences typically illustrating the elements emphasized, in other words, reflective teaching highlights ongoing self-assessment while action research focuses on planning, implementing, and evaluating actual changes in the classroom.
Project-based education is an instructional approach that seeks to contextualize language learning by involving learners in projects, rather than in isolated activities targeting specific skills. Project-based learning activities generally integrate language and cognitive skills, connect to real-life problems, generate high learner interest, and involve some cooperative or group learning skills . Unlike instruction where content is organized by themes that relate and contextualize material to be learned, project-based learning divsents learners with a problem to solve or a product to produce. They must then plan and execute activities to achieve
Projects selected may be complex and require an investment of time and resources, or they may be more modest in scale. Examples of projects include a class cookbook, an international food bazaar, a folktale-based story hour at a local library, a neighborhood services directory, or a class web page . In the selection of projects and activities, it is important to include learners' input, as well as to consider carefully how the project will fit with overall instructional goals and objectives .
Chapter 2. Theory of Multiple Intelligences.
2.1. Gardner’s Theory.
Arguing that "reason, intelligence, logic, knowledge are not synonymous...," Howard Gardner (1983) proposed a new view of intelligence that is rapidly being incorporated in school curricula. In his Theory of Multiple Intelligences, Gardner expanded the concept of intelligence to also include such areas as music, spacial relations, and
interpersonal knowledge in addition to mathematical and linguistic ability.
This research discusses the origins of Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences, his definition of intelligence, the incorporation of the Theory of Multiple Intelligences into the classroom, and its role in alternative assessment practices.
According to Howard Gardner, as divsented in his book Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences, human intelligence has the following characteristics:
-A set of skills that enable a person to resolve genuine problems encountered in life.
-The Ability to create an effective product or offer a service that is valued in a culture.
-The Potential for recognizing or creating problems, thereby establishing the necessity for the new knowledge.
Howard Gardner said in his book: “it becomes necessary to say, once and for all, that there can never be, a single irrefutable and universally accepted list of human intelligences.
Though an exhaustive list of every intelligence may not be possible, identifying intelligences is important for at least two reasons:
-Classification of Human Intellectual Competencies which will allow a better understanding of humanity.
-Identification of Intellectual Strengths which will enable researchers to communicate more accurately about the concept of Intellect.
Gardner defines intelligence as "the capacity to solve problems or to fashion product that are valued in one or more cultural setting". Using biological as well as cultural research, he formulated a list of seven intelligences. This new outlook on intelligence differs greatly from the traditional view which usually recognizes only two intelligences, verbal and computational. The seven intelligences Gardner defines are:
2.1.1 Linguistic Intelligence
Linguistic intelligence (or verbal-linguistic) is the ability to use with clarity the core operations of language. It involves having a mastery of language. This intelligence includes the ability to effectively manipulate language to exdivss oneself rhetorically or poetically. It also allows one to use language as a means to remember information.
People with linguistic intelligence have a sensitivity to the meaning of words--the capacity to follow rules of grammar, and, on carefully selected occasions, to violate them. At a somewhat more sensory level--a sensitivity to the sounds, rhythms, inflections, and meters of words--that ability which can make even poetry in a foreign tongue beautiful to hear. And a sensitivity to the different functions of language--its potential to excite, convince, stimulate, convey information, or simply to please.
People such as poets, authors, reporters, speakers, attorneys, talk-show hosts, politicians, lecturers, and teachers may exhibit developed linguistic intelligence.
2.1.2 Logical-Mathematical Intelligence
Logical-Mathematical intelligence is logical and mathematical ability as well as scientific ability. It consists of the ability to detect patterns, reason deductively and think logically. This intelligence is most often associated with scientific and mathematical thinking.
Abstraction is fundamental, reasoning is complex, and problem-solution is natural.
Order and sequence are significant. There is a drive to know causality as well as the explication of existence.
People such as mathematicians, engineers, physicists, esearchers, astronomers, and scientists may exhibit developed logical-mathematical intelligence.
2.1.3 Intra-Personal Intelligence
Intra-Personal intelligence is the ability to form an accurate model of oneself, and to use that model to operate effectively in life. At a basic level, it is the capacity to distinguish feelings of pleasure from emotional pain and , on the basis of such discrimination, to become more involved in or to withdraw from a situation. At the most advanced level, interpersonal intelligence is the capacity to detect and to
symbolize complex and high differentiated sets of feelings.
People such as some novelists, therapists, sages, psychologists, and philosophers may exhibit developed intra-personal intelligence.
2.1.4 Inter-Personal Intelligence
Inter-personal intelligence is the ability to notice and make distinctions among other individuals and, in particular, among their moods, temperaments, motivations, and intentions. Examined in its most elementary form, the inter-personal intelligence entails the capacity of the young child to detect and discriminate the various moods of
those around them. In an advanced form, it permits a skilled adult to read the intentions and desires--even when those desires have been hidden--of many other individuals and, potentially, act upon this knowledge.
People such as politicians, religious leaders, and those in the helping professions may exhibit developed inter-personal intelligence.
The last two intelligences are separate from each other. Nevertheless, because of their close association in most cultures, they are often linked together.
2.1.5 Musical Intelligence
Musical intelligence (or Musical-rhythmic) is the ability to use the core set of musical elements--pitch, rhythm, and timbre (understanding the characteristic qualities of a tone). Auditory functions are required for a person to develop this intelligence in relation to pitch and tone, but it is not needed for the knowledge of rhythm. There may be a hierarchy of difficulty involved in various roles--composition, performance, listening.
People such as singers, composers, instrumentalists, conductors, and those who enjoy, understand, use, create, perform, and apdivciate music and/or elements of music may exhibit developed musical intelligence.
2.1.6 Spatial Intelligence
Spatial intelligence (or visual-spatial) is the capacity to perceive the world accurately, and to be able to recreate one's visual experience. It gives one the ability to manipulate and create mental images in order to solve problems. This intelligence is not limited to visual domains--Gardner notes that spatial intelligence is also formed in blind children. It entails a number of loosely related capacities: the ability to recognize instances of the same element; the ability to recognize transformations of
one element in another; the capacity to conjure up mental imagery and then to transform that imagery; the ability to produce a graphic likeness of spatial information; and the like. A person with a good sense of direction or the ability to move and operate well in the world would indicate spatial intelligence.
People such as sailors, engineers, surgeons, sculptors, painters, cartographers, and architects may exhibit developed spatial intelligence.
2.1.7 Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence
Bodily-Kinesthetic intelligence is the ability to use one's mental abilities to coordinate one's own bodily movements and the ability to handle objects skillfully. This intelligence challenges the popular belief that mental and physical activity are unrelated.
People such as actors, dancers, swimmers, acrobats, athletes, jugglers,
instrumentalists and artisans may exhibit developed bodily-kinesthetic intelligence.
2.1.8 Naturalistic Intelligence
The following definition is an abbreviation and adaptation by J. Keith Rogers and based upon his study of Howard Gardner's theory: