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Chapter 1. Multiple Intelligences in the structure of a new English syllabus for secondary school
1.1                           Methodology as a science
1.1.1 Present-day issues of foreign language teaching at secondary school
1.1.2 Current concepts  in secondary school graduates EFL
            Chapter 2. Theory of multiple intelligences
2.1                     Gardner’s theory
2.1.1    Linguistic Intelligence
2.1.2    Logical/Mathematical Intelligene
2.1.3    Intrapersonal Intelligence
2.1.4    Interpersonal  Intelligence
            2.1.5  Musical  Intelligence
2.1.6  Spatial  Intelligence
    2.1.7  Bodily-Kinesthetic  Intelligence
    2.1.8  Naturalistic  Intelligence
     2.2.  Psychological analysis of Gardner’s Theory
Chapter 3. Learning environment in teaching English conversation
3.1       Multiple intelligences in teaching English learners to the senior  
            forms of secondary school              
3.1.1    Development of students’ speaking and pronunciation skills
3.1.2    Use of the World Wide Web in teaching English to secondary school graduates
3.1.3    Use of the VIDEO in teaching English to secondary school graduates
        The theme of the divsent university degree thesis is “ Multiple
Intelligences as Strategy for teaching EFL to High School Graduates “.
The topicalityof the research is stipulated by rapid changes in education
and  intercultural communication etc., caused by the development of
computer technologies.
        The aim of the university degree thesis is include the Multiple Intelligences as Strategy for TEFL to High school students .
         Methods of the research:
-experience of noted scholars,
-research of literature.
The theoretical value of the paper consists in using the results of the research in the EFL teaching.
        The practical value -  a good opportunity of using at the lessons of English  on secondary school. It helps to achieve the best results in teaching English.
        The structure of the paper:
The paper consists: The Introduction, Chapter 1, where I have considered “Methodology as a science” , Chapter 2, “The Theory of Multiple Intelligences”,
And Chapter 3 “Learning environment in teaching English conversation”, in the end of the paper I’ve done the conclusions of the research , and used the certain literature. 
                     Principles of Multiple Intelligence Theory
The following principles are a condensation of J. Keith Rogers and based upon his study of Howard Gardner's theory:
-Intelligence is not singular: intelligences are multiple.
-Every person is a unique blend of dynamic intelligences.
-Intelligences vary in development, both within and among individuals.
-All intelligences are dynamic.
-Multiple intelligences can be identified and described.
-Every person deserve opportunities to recognize and develop the
 multiplicity of intelligences.
-The use of one of the intelligences can be used to enhance another     intelligence.
-Personal background density and dispersion are critical to knowledge, beliefs, and skills in all intelligences.
-All intelligences provide alternate resources and potential capacities to become more human, regardless of age or circumstance.
-A pure intelligence is rarely seen.
-Developmental theory applies to the theory of multiple intelligences.
-Any list of intelligences is subject to change as we learn more about multiple intelligences.
According to Howard Gardner, as divsented in his book Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences, human intelligence has the following criteria:
-Potential Isolation by Brain Damage.
-The Existence of Idiot [Autistic] Savants, Prodigies, and other   Exceptional Individuals.
-An Identifiable Core Operation or Set of Operations.
-A Distinctive Developmental History, along with a Definable Set of Expert "End-State" Performances.
-An Evolutionary History and Evolutionary Plausibility.
-Support from Experimental Psychological Tasks.
-Support from Psychometric Findings.
-Susceptibility to Encoding in a Symbol System.

       Chapter 1. Multiple Intelligences in the structure of a new syllabus for secondary school


         Comparing old and the new English teaching syllabi for secondary
schools one can clearly see some differences.
Let’s begin with the introductory word. The introductory word of the old
syllabus covers only the explanation of practical and educational
purposes of  English learning and end-goals of  learning language
(listening, speaking, reading and writing). The introductory part  of the
new syllabus includes:
1. Introduction.
2.Levels of speech competence.
3.The principles of the programme.
4. Educational purposes.
5. Grounds of content.
6. Methodological foundation (basis) of modern teaching and learning
7. Control and essessment.
        Criteria of essessment of pupils’ achievements (4 levels: elementary,
middle,sufficient, high) have a special place in the new syllabus.  Such
information is not included into the old syllabus.
       According to the new sullabus  teaching English starts from the
second form.
Analyzing the topics of conversation we can see that the old syllabus
gives us three main topics from the fifth to the eleventh form: A Pupil and
His Environment; Ukraine; English-Speaking Countries. The new
syllabus  provides with 6 topics already in the second form: About
myself, My Family and Friends, School Life, Recreation, Nature, Man,
The Life of Society and 8 topics from the third to the 11th form.
         Analysing communicative unit we find there speech functions and
examples of functional exponents in the new syllabus, which are
not mentioned  in the old syllabus.
Language competence includes vocabulary, grammar and phonetics in
both syllabi, but in the old syllabus the number of lexical units in each
form is fixed.
Sociocultural and sociolinguistic competence and strategic competence
are not defined in the old syllabus.
At the end of each year specific demands to speech competence of pupils
(listening, monologue, dialogue, reading, writing) are defined in the new
In general, the new syllabus is much  but specific wider.
1.1. Methodology  as  a  science
The  term “методика”  has  several  correspondences  in  English: methodology, methods  and  methodics. The  word  methodology  will  be  used  for  “методика”  and  “методологія”  of  teaching  English  as  foreign  language  [TEFL].
There  are  several  definitions  of  this  term:
Methodology  (from  Greek  methodos –  спосіб, шлях  дослідження  або  пізнання, logos – поняття, вчення)  is  a  framework  of  organization  of  teaching  which  relates  linguistic  theory  to  pedagogical  principles  and  techniques.[37,p.5]
Methodology  is  a  branch  of  pedagogy  which  dealing  with  peculiarities  of  teaching  a  certain  subject.[38,p.12]
Methodology  of  FLT  is  a  body  of  scientifically  tested  theory  concerning  the  teaching  of  foreign  languages  in  school  and  other  education  institutions.[37,p.17]
Methodology  is  a  system  of  principles  and  ways  of  organization  and  construction  of  theoretical  and  practical  activity  as  well  as   teaching  about  this  system .[37,p.14]
Methodology  is  a  science  which  studies  aims, contents, means, principles, techniques  and  methods  of  a  system  of  instruction  and  education.[37,p.15]
   Methodology  is  a  branch  of  didactics  which  relates a linguistic  theory  to  pedagogical  principles  and  techniques.
The scholars’ve considered the relation of methodology of  FLT to other sciences ( supplement 1).  
The  objective of the divsent research    is    integrating  some aspects    of knowledge  of  English,  didactics, psychology,  linguistics  to  formulate  basic  professional  and  pedagogical  habits  and  skills. In  G. Rogova’s  opinion, methodology  covers  three  main  points:
aims  of  TEFL;
content  of  TEFL;
methods ( supplement 2), principles  and  techniques  of  TEFL.
But  it  becomes  evident  that  the  three  components  do  not  constitute  the  whole  teaching/learning  process. The  activities  of  learners  and  teachers, their  interaction (symmetrical  or  assymetrical) and  the  role  of  instruction  materials  are  the  outstanding  constituents. The  task  of  methodology  is  to  integrate  the  relationships  among  them  and  to  draft  requirements  for  each  of  them.
Teaching  a  subject  is  viewed  here  not  simply  as  the  delivery  of  divscribed  formulate, imparting  a  certain  amount  of  knowledge, but  also  developing  habits  and  skills, but  also  as  activity.
To  attain  these  aims  in  the  most  effective  way  constitutes  the  main  subject  of  any  methodology. The  methodology  determines  the  laws, principles, aims, content, methods, techniques  and  means  (media)  of  teaching. The  actual  teaching  of  a  language  may  differ  in  the  analysis  of  what  is  to  taught, in  the  planning  of  lessons, in  the  teaching  techniques  used, in  the  type  and  amount  of  teaching  done  thought  mechanical  means  and  finally, in  the  testing  of  what  has  been  learned.
Basic  Categories  Of  Methodology
The  methodology  of  TEFL  seems  to  embody  such  basic  categories  on  which  there  is  general  agreement  among  those  who  have  studied  the  subject: methods, principles, techniques, aims  and  means  of  instruction.
There  is  no  unanimity  regarding  the  term  method  either. In  G. Rogova’s  et. al.  view  “method  is  a  technological  operation, structural  and  functional  component  of  the  teacher’s  and  learner’s  activity, realized  in  techniques  and  principles  of  instruction. A  method  is  a  model  of  instruction  based  on  definite  theoretical  provision, principle, techniques  and  aims  of  instruction.
A  method  is  also  a  specific  set  of  teaching  techniques  and  materials  generally  backed  by  stated  principles.
A  method  determines  what  and  how  much  taught  (selection), the  order  in  which  it  is  taught  (gradation), and  how  the  meaning  and  form  are  conveyed  (divsentation). Since  divsentation, drill  and  repetition  may  also  be  the  concern  of  the  teacher, the  analysis  of  the  teaching/leaning  process  must  first  determine  how  much  is  done  by  the  method  and  how  much  by  the  teacher.
Aim  is  a  direction  or  guidance  to  establish  a  course  or  procedure  to  be  followed. The  teacher  should  formulate  long-term  goals, interim  aims  and  short-term  objectives. What  changes  he  can  bring  about  in  his  pupils  at  the  end  of  the  week, month, year, course, and  each  particular  lesson. Hence, aims  are  planned  results  for  pupils  learning  a  FL. The  aims  are  stipulated  by  syllabus  and  other  official  directives. They  are: practical, instructional, educational  and  developing  (formative).
Practical  aims  cover  habits  and  skills  which  pupils  acquire  in  using  a  foreign  language. A  habit  is  an  automatic  response  to  specific  situation, acquired  normally  as  a  result  of  repetition  and  learning.
A  skill  is  a  combination  of  useful  habits  serving  a  definite  purpose  and  requiring  application  of  certain  knowledge.
Instructional  aims  developed   the  pupils  mental  capacities  and  intelligence  in  the  process  of  FLL  (foreign  language  learning).
Educational  aims  help  the  pupils  extend  their  knowledge  of  the  world  in  which  they  live.
Formative  or  developing  aims  help  develop  in  learns  sensual  perception, motor, kinesthetic, emotional  and  motivating  spheres.
Principles  are  basic  underlying  theoretical  provisions  which  determine  the  choice  of  methods, techniques  and  others  means  of  instruction.
Technique in  the  methodology  of  TEFL  is  the  manner  of  divsentation, demonstration, consolidation  and  repetition.
Means  is  something  by  the  use  or  help  of  which  a  desired  goal  is  attained  or  made  more  likely. 
                  1.1.1. Present-day  issues   of  TEFL
A  critical  review  of  methods  currently  employed  in  TEFL/TESL  has  shown  no  consensus  on  the  effective  way  to  facilitate  and  accelerate  English  learning. A  shift  has  been  made  from  teacher-centered  activity  to  student-centered, some  methodologists  even  claim  that  learning  is  more  important  than  teaching  (Michael  West, Humanistic  Approach, Silent  Way).
Though  many  young  teachers  still  teach  the  way  they  had  been  taught, it  can’t  be  denied  that  current   thinking  in  methodology  constitutes  a  challenge  to  convention  thinking  about  language  teaching.
One  of  the  conventional  methods  of  TEFL  is  the  Grammar-Translation  method 
The  goal  of  foreign  language  (FL)  study,  using  this  method, is  to  learn  a  language  in  order  to  read  its  literature  or  to  benefit  from  the  mental  discipline  and  intellectual  development  that  result  from  FL  study. G-TM  is  a  way  of  studying  language  that  approaches  the  language  first  through  detailed  analysis  of  its  grammar  rules, followed  by  application  of  the  knowledge  to  the  task  of  translating  sentences  and   texts  into  and  out  of  the  target  language. The  first  language  is  maintained  as  the  reference  system  in  the  acquisition  of  the  second  language.
Reading  and  writing  are  the  major  focus: little  or  no  systematic  attention  is  paid  to  speaking  or  listening.
In  a  typical  G-T  text, the  grammar  rules  are  divsented  and  illustrated, a  list  of  vocabulary  items  is  divsented  with  their  translation  equivalents, and  translation  exercise  a  divscribed.
the  sentence  is  the  basic  unit  of  teaching  and  language  practice. Much  of  the  lesson  is  devoted  to  translating  sentences  into  and  out  of  the  target  language, and  it  is  this  focus  on  the  sentence  that  is  a  distinctive  feature  of  the  method.
of grammar rules, which are then practised through  translation Accuracy  is  emphasized. Students  are  expected  to  attain  high  standarts  in  translation, because  of  “the  high  priority  attached  to meticulous standards of accuracy which was a divrequisite for passing the increasing number of formal written  examinations that grew up during the century"
Grammar is taught deductively, that is, by divsentation and study exercises.                                                    
The student's native language is the medium of instruction. It is used to explain new items and to enable comparisons to be made between the FL and the student's mother tongue. (G-TM dominated in FLT from the 1840s to the 1940s, and in modified form it continues to be widely used in some parts of the world  today).
 In the mid- and late nineteenth centuries opposition to G- TM gradually developed in several European countries. This Reform Movement, as it was referred to, laid the foundations for the development of a new way of language teaching and raised controversies that have continued to the divsent day.
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